Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre – Now and Then


Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre (牛车水人民剧场) was built in 1969.  The theatre has been revamped several times, including an entire overhaul which was completed in May 1979, before it became the well-equipped theatre seen on 30A Kreta Ayer Road today.

Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre currently is managed by Kreta Ayer Community Club Management Committee, it continues to stage various arts and culture groups to the heartlands, having strong emphasis on Chinese opera, and with a keen sense of social responsibility.

Theatre’s past and present

[Source:  The Straits Times, 22 October 1981]

Tucked away on a hill in Chinatown, is the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre which has succeeded in preserving and promoting Chinese culture.  LEONG WENG KAM traces the development of the theatre from its humble beginning 14 years ago … has been actively promoting the theatrical arts and is a popular place for Chinese opera performances, especially Cantonese operas.

The theatre has been the venue where many well-known opera groups such as the Hongkong Chor Foong Ming Opera Troupe and China’s Guangdong Opera Troupe have performed.

The present modern theatre, built in traditional Chinese architecture with huge red cylindrical pillars and temple-like green roof-tops, always has a busy calendar.


Besides shows by Chinese opera troupes from abroad, many local troupes have also performed at this 1,102-seat built only about two years ago.

Looking at its past and the present, the theatre has indeed achieved what it set out to do.  And that, in the words of the First Deputy Prime Minister and MP for Kreta Ayer, Dr Goh Keng Swee, was “to preserve and promote Chinese opera”.

The theatre has a stage which is 22.5 metres deep and 8.22 metres high.  It is equipped with good sound and lighting systems, and is ideal for even the big musical and dance performances, including concerts by symphony orchestras.

In between the stage performances, the theatre also screens first-run films – mostly Cantonese movies in a joint-venture with Cathay Organisation.

The theatre, built by the people, managed by the people and used by the people has come a long way from its humble beginnings.

The idea of building the theatre was first conceived 14 years ago when the need to have a permanent stage in the Kreta Ayer constituency was felt.

Since 1960, the Kreta Ayer community centre has been actively promoting cultura activities.  But for every performance organised by the centre then, a makeshift canvas had to be put up and taken down after the show.

That proved to be both uneconomical and tedious.  So, in December 1967, the centre’s management committee set up a charity and building fund to help construct a permanent stage at the centre’s Banda Hill premises.

The fund-raising projects in a series of charity shows received very good public support, and construction of the stage was completed in March 1969 at a cost of about $100,000.

While a permanent stage had been built, there were no proper seats for the audience.  Makeshift canvas still had to be put up to keep the rain or sun away.  And chairs had also to be hired whenever there were performances.

Before long, the theatre decided to raise more money to build a permanet roof.  The cemented stage floor was changed to one made of teak-wood.  This extension project which brough total building costs to $250,000, was completed in February 1971.

With the addition of a permanent rood, the theatre had another use.  Chinese clan associations which needed the place to hold get-together dinners.

The success of the first extension project prompted the theatre to embark upon a second phase of extension.  It included the construction of a toilet block, a ticket booth, repairs to the road and the car park around it, installation of lighting systems and a sound effects control room.

These additional facilities were completed in stages between 1972 and 1974 at a cost of almost $220,000.

Said one faithful Cantonese opera fan and a resident living near the theatre, Madam Kok Ah Mui:  “We were all wet when it rained.  It is much better now.  I can enjoy operas in air-conditioned comfort.  But I must also pay more for the shows.”

The theatre has started to invite top Chinese opera troupes from abroad since 1974 in a bid to provide local opera enthusiasts with the opportunity to see better shows.

Besides the famous Chor Foong Ming Cantonese Opera Troupe from Hongkong, other troupes from the colong, including Ying Ling Cantonese Opera Troupe, Hoong Ling Cantonese Troupe and Seng Ngai Teochew Opera Troupe have been among those invited to perform.

The theatre ws registered to become the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre Foudnation in May, 1975, as a non-profit making and charity body.]

The foundation, with money from the many Chinese opera shows the theatre put up, has donated many thousands of dollars to charity and educational orgnaisations both inside and outside the Kreta Ayer constituency.

In 1976, the foundation planned to rebuild the theatre to cope with the changing demands and needs of the people.  The reconstruction which began in January 1978 and were completed in May 1979, changed the theatre into its present modern structure.  The reconstruction cost more than $1 million.

The reconstruction was also done in conjuction with the re-develoment of the Kreta Ayer community centre which is now occupying the three-storey wing adjacent to the theatre hall.

The secretary of the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre management committee, Mr Tan Cher Peow , said the development of the theatre from a stage to its present million dollar building was a reflection of progress and the changing needs of the people over the past 10 years or so.

He added: “The theatre hopes to promote an interest in the theatrical arts among the population and at the same time aims to help the poor and needy.

“It will bring better troupes from abroad to perform in future so as to meet its objectives.”

Opening of the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre

The Minister for Culture, Mr Jek Yeun Thong, officially opened the theatre’s auditorium on 16 May, 1971.


20200321_223803Minister for Culture Jek Yeun Thong (wearing dark-coloured suit) and his wife Madam Huang Kek Chee (left background) are welcomed up arrival at the opening of the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre on 16 May, 1971.

20200321_222414Minister for Defence and Kreta Ayer Member of Parliament Dr Goh Keng Swee attended the opening of the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre on 16 May, 1971.

Pictures of Chinese cultural dance performance during the opening of the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre, courtesy of the National Archives of Singapore.



[Source:  The Straits Times, 8 July 2001]

When Phua Bah Lee entered politics 33 years ago, the promotion of Chinese opera could not have been further from his mind.  He tells LEONG WENG KAM how that all changed when he was asked to help in the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre.


Mr Phua Bah Lee was born in 1932.  He married librarian Tan Cheok Tin, now 65, in 1968.  They have three children.  Elder son, Roger, 30, who is married with two daughters, is a business development manager  Second son, Robert, 26, is a lawyer, and daughter Tin Tin, 26, is a computer software engineer.

1959:  Graduated from the former Nanyang University
1960:   Joined the civil service as collector of land revenue
1968:   Entered politics, became MP for Tampines and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Communications
1970:   Transferred to the Defence Ministry as Parliamentary Secretary
1972:   Promoted to Senior Parliamentary Secretary and appointed founding president of the SAF Reservists’ Association
1973:   Elected president of the Basketball Association of Singapore
1977:   Appointed chairman of the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre management committee
1979:   Awarded the Friend of Labour Medal by NTUC
1988:   Retired from politics and became general manager of Ngee Ann Development

When Mr Phua Bah Lee, 69, was in a taxi on his way to the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre in Chinatown last Monday evening, the curious cabby asked:  “So which opera troupe from China is performing there tonight?”

The driver had presumed that Mr Phua, who prefers not to drive at night because of his poor eyesight, was among the many opera afficionados going to a performance that evening.

And certainly he did not know that his passenger was the long-time chairman of the theatre’s management committee, responsible for bringing in top opera stars from all over China over the last 25 years.

He probably did not know, too, that Mr Phua was Senior Parliamentary Secretary to the Communications and Defence ministries and the People’s Action Party (PAP) MP for Tampines for 20 years, before retiring from politics in 1988.

Relating the incident to Sunday Review, Mr Phua, now a director of several public-listed companies, says the taxi-driver’s query shows that the theatre in Chinatown has become a well-known venue for opera performances, the West End or Broadway of Chinese opera to all its fans here.

He said: :  “I told the taxi driver, a man in his 40s, that some of the top opera stars from Guangdong in China, including Peng Chiquan and Zeng Hui, were performing at the theatre and told me that he had brought his father to a Hainanese opera recently.”

Mr Phua has headed the theatre’s management committee since 1977 when he was still Senior Parliamentary Secretary (Defence).

He added:  “The greatest satisfaction in my work with the theatre has been to see the old folk, some with walking sticks in hand, and even a few in wheelchairs, coming to enjoy the Chinese operas we stage at least twice a year.”

Chinese opera, including that from Guangdong in China, was regarded as a dying art form here, with audiences dwindling in the early 1970s when Mr Phua first joined the management committee of the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre, a brainchild of former Defence and Deputy Prime Minister Goh Keng Swee, who started it as an open-air stage in 1969.

“But look, after about 30 years, Chinese opera is still alive and the theatre is almost full every night when there is a Chinese opera troupe peforming,” Mr Phua said proudly.

In fact, interest in Chinese opera, he added, noting that at least two opra perfromances are staged here by both homegrown and foreign troupes, and thousands of people are enrolling in opera-singing and performing courses at community centres and clubs.

But he is not claiming in credit for himself or the theatres where more than 1,000 Chinese opera in the last decades have performed there.

They include the late Liang Xingbo and Wen Quefei, Chen Chuhui, Pei Yanling, Yang Lihua, Nan Hong, Luo Pingchao, Lin Jiasheng, Feng Huangnu and Hong Xiannu.

“I think Chinese clan associations and community centres, many with Chinese opera troupes, and professional opera companiesw such as the Chinese Theatre Circle, have also done a lot in promoting the art form all these years,” he said.


With such enthusiasm and accomplishments in this art form, one might think that Chinese opera has always been in Mr Phua’s blood. Wrong.

Indeed, it was the last thing on his mind when he made his first foray into politics in 1968  …..


In the early 1970s, Defence Minister Goh Keng Swee asked him to join the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre management committee in Chinatown, a largely Cantonese-speaking area in his Kreta Ayer constituency.

Mr Phua, a Teochew, felt that he was in a strange place at first, for he spoke no Cantonese then.

Nevertheless, he took up the challenge to promote Chinese opera – especially Cantonese opera – in the area, by helping to develop the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre from a simple makeshift stage to a 1,102-seat, air-conditioned auditorium today, and bringing in top opera stars from China.

As chairman of the theatre’s management committee, one of the highlights was the return in 1980 of diva Hong Xiannu, now in her late 70s to Singapore, after 50 years.

She was the undisputed movie and opera queen of  the 1950s and she created a stir when she came as artistic director of the Guangdong Cantonese Opera Troupe.

Another hindsight was China’s Xiamen Hokkien Opera Troupe’s performance in 1985, which grossed a record profit for the theatre, with a collection of over $300,000.

But the most memorable was Guangdong’s Foshan Cantonese Opera Troupe in 1991, starring young opera stars Peng Chiquan, Cao Xiuqin and Wu Guohua, who played to a record 28 full-house nights.

Looking back, Mr Phua said: “I still admire Dr Goh, a Peranakan who knows little Chinese, but was zealous in promoting Chinese opera as chairman of the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre Foundation, an non-profit, charity organisation formed to help the poor in the constituency.

Besides promoting Chinese opera, the foundation also used the money raised from performance by both local and foreign troupes for charitable causes, such as distributing hongbao to old folk during Chinese New Year and giving bursaries to children from poor families.

Inspired by Dr Goh, Mr Phua did not step down from his role at the theatre in Kreta Ayer, when he retired from politics in 1988 to make way for younger leaders in the PAP.

With more time now, Mr Phua said he watches and enjoys the Chinese operas he brought over from China even more.

He added: “The stories are from well-know Chinese folklore or history, lften with good moral teachings, I also like listening to opera music.”

After all these years, Mr Phua said he now speaks Cantonese as well, and converses easily in the dialect with officials from China and the opera stars.

“I am considering bring in Peking operas to the theatre next,” he said.

His work and interest in Chinese opera has influenced his wife, Madam Tan Cheok Tin, 65, a retired librarian, who is considering taking lessons in Cantonese opera singing.  “She is a regular at opera performances now.” he added.

Mr Phua said he hopes to retire from the Kreta Ayer Theatre when a successor is found.  “After so many years, I think someone younger should take over from me,” he said.

And when he retires, he will still go the opera, probably with his wife  – and in a taxi.


The big night jitters of  Madam White Snake

[Source:   The Straits Times, 21 February 1972]

Queen Elizabeth on Saturday night ended torment of Mrs Joanna Wong, the deputy registrar of the University of Singapore.

She had been in a flutter of anxiety since a local newspaper report a few weeks ago said that hte Queen and her family would come to see the Cantonese opera, “Madam White Snake” the Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre.

06105807-story-image-122258_cover_640x400(Right of photo:  Mrs Joanna Wong)

The Royal Family was coming to see the opera, in which the leading lady was none other than Mrs Wong.

And Mrs Wong had no doubts about the Queen not understanding the play.

20200321_225255Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew seated beside Queen Elizabeth at the theatre

Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew gave the Queen a running commentary of the opera.

The opera is based on a legendary story of a white snake falling in love with a man.

They wed but the marriage is broken up by a monk who lures the groom into a temple which in turn is flooded by the snake with its magical powers in a bid to release him.

Did the Queen enjoy the opera?

Her Majesty was overheard telling the produces:  “Thank you very much for the very good show.”

The archived photos of Queen Elizabeth II and the royal family visit Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre on 19 February, 1972.  Courtesy of the National Archives of Singapore.

20200321_224557Queen Elizabeth II being greeted by Diretor of People’s Association Lee Wai Kok upon arrival at Kreta Ayer People’ Theatre in Chinatown.

20200321_224710Queen Elizabeth II signing the guestbook at Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre.

20200321_225407Queen Elizabeth II accompanied by Director of People’s Association Lee Wai Kok leaving Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre after watching a Cantonese opera  on 19 February, 1972.

Motorcade of Queen Elizabeth II leaving Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre (photo below).



Memories of the Victoria Memorial Hall, Singapore


The Vic revived

By Gretchen Mahbubani
[Source:  The Straits Times, 27 September 1980]


What better example of breathing new life in old buildings then Victoria Memorial Hall’s $4-million restoration?  When the Prime Minister, Mr Lee Kuan Yew, opens the splendidly refurbished Concert Hall on Wednesday night, hearts will await the memories stir to the strains of the SSO’s strings.

A theatre painstakingly restored to its turn-of-the-century splendour with fluted columns, arches and glorious architectural details left intact but updated and outfitted with modern comforts.

In Paris, London or New York, such news would not surprise anyone.

But it has happened in Singapore – and concert goers are in for a treat.

Behind the surrounding the Victoria Memorial Hall in the last year, a massive $4-million renovation has been taking place.

The Victoria Concert Hall, to be opened on Oct 1, by the Prime Minister, is not only a fitting home for the Singapore Symphony Orchestra, but it also has a historic and dramatic stage set that will make concert-going an exciting experience.



The Victoria Memorial Hall and adjacent theatre are at the hub of a group of older buildings that stretch from the General Post Office and Immigration to Parliament, the Supreme Court and City Hall, all of which together create a grand civic design.

While remnants of a colonial past, they are also closely associated with the decades of independence.  Since these buildings are considered to be of historic interest, there is no fear of any of them being torn down.

But it is an unexpected surprise that the renovations to the Victoria Memorial Hall have taken into such careful consideration the old and irreplaceable architecture.

Rather than getting the structurally sound building – or doing away with it altogether and replacing it with a totally new building – the Public Works Department architects and engineers have worked around its neo-Classical interior.

For many years the hall was the venue for musical recitals, orchestral and choir concerts.  But it was never renovated like the adjacent Victoria Theatre was in the mid-Fifties.

The only thing that ever happened was a half-hearted attempt to restore the organ, originally one of the finest in Asia, to its original state.  It had been battered and looted during the Japanese Occupation.  Today, it is hidden behind white folding doors at the back of the stage.


By the mid-Seventies the hall was in a state of disrepair and downright dreary.  But with the formation of the Singapore Symphony Orchestra, the need for renovation became more urgent.

In March 1977, the then Culture Minister, Mr Jek Yun Thong, said on the question of converting the hall to make it suitable for the orchestra to perform, that it would be cheaper to build a new concert hall elsewhere.

But, he added, the hall was of historic interest because the PAP convened its first meeting there.

Fortunately, the structurally sound hall was saved.

From the beginning the building’s hsitoric flavour was considered an asset.  Said Mr Peter Loh Ying Leong, a PWD Senior Architect (Special Duties) who supervised the project:  “The basic design principle governing the renovations was to retain the old character of the building.

“People come to the theatre for an experience.  If the outside is classical, the interior should be as well.  We hope the concert hall will provide the right kind of atmosphere and environment.”

But leaving the basic structure alone was a major constraint.

Wooden fire staircases had to be replaced with metal ones; rotten roof trusses had to be replaced without disturbing the roof, behind the stage new dressing rooms were built and a glass front recording room for the Singapore Broadcasting Corporation was put in.

A VIP room was built in the clock tower itself and a VIP lift up to the balcony level was added behind the clock tower.


Marking time – and progress

[Source:  The Straits Times, 7 March 1994]


Amidst the colony of cranes building the river wall at Boat Quay stands the quaint Victoria Memorial Hall clock tower – past and future juxtaposed in one frame.

As teh seconds tick by, the buildings and scenes that Singaporeans have come to cherish must make way for progress.

Said Straits Times photographer Malcom McLeod who took the picture:  “Time doesn’t stand still when it comes to development.”

An Old Pal of the Tower Clock

rptMr R. F. A. Housman

An “old friend” of the tower-clock of the Victoria Memorial Hall in Singapore.

He is Mr R. F. A. Housman, M. I. Mech. E., consulting engineer of Gillett and Johnston Ltd., bell founders and tower clock makers of Croydon.

The big clock in the tower of the Victoria Memorial Hall was fitted in 1907.

Peek into the past of a national monument

Go on a pictorial walk of the Victoria Theatre and Concert Hall with Debra Ann Francisco
[Source:  Straits Times, 7 May 2013]


You cannot help marvelling at the beauty of the architecture of the Victoria Theatre and Concert Hall, which were built during an era of a revival of Victorian design.

The birth of the complex began with the decision to build a town hall in 1862.  Before this, local operas and dramas were held in the Assembly Rooms, which had fallen into disrepair.

When the town hall was completed, it housed a theatre as well as offices and meeting rooms.

In 1901, the Victoria Memorial Hall was built beside the town hall in memory of the late Queen Victoria.  The building opened in 1905.  By 1909, the town hall was also renovated to match the facade of the memorial hall.

During World War II, the memorial hall was used as a hospital for victims of the bomb raids.

When calm returned to Singapore after the war, a series of renovations began.

By the 1970s, the town hall was already functioning as Victoria Theatre and the memorial hall was renamed Victoria Concert Hall.

Today, this complex of two buildings, and a clock tower is joined by a common corridor.

In 1992, the Victoria Theatre and Concert Hall was gazetted as a national monument.


2.  Many exciting events were held at Victoria Memorial Hall.  In 1990, police were called to control a huge crowd that showed up for a children’s party thrown by Chung Khiaw Bank to mark its 10th anniversary.  As many adults as children turned up and this caused traffic chaos on the street outside the hall.


3.   New Year parties were also held there, such as this one in 1952.


4  Volunteers are seen here making poppy wreaths at Victoria Memorial Hall.  Thirty members of the Chinese Ladies’ Association worked to complete about $3,000 worth of poppy wreaths ordered for the Rememberance Day ceremony at the Singapore Cenotaph in 1954.


5.  Political speeches and important events were also held at the memorial hall.

The then Prime Minister, Mr Lee Kuan Yew, addressed his Malaysian and Borneo counterparts during his speech at the opening of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association regional conference in 1962.


6.  Crowds await the 1957 by-election results outside the Victoria Memorial Hall.


7.  The clock tower, which stands at a height of 54m, was completed in 1906.  The clock, which was donated by the Straits Trading Company, is 4m wide and weights 1 tonne.


A historical event which changed the lives of many pioneer generation Singaporeans was launched at the Victoria Memorial Hall here .

The Victoria Memorial Hall Today


The statue of Sir Stamford Raffles at Victoria Memorial Hall looking towards the Fullerton Building and Marina Bay Sands on 16 March 2020.


The statue of Sir Stamford Raffles at Victoria Memorial Hall looking towards the Fullerton Building in 1930, courtesy of the National Archives of Singapore.img0069



New Heights – 50-Storey Pinnacle@Duxton

qrfMinister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew laying the foundation for the 50-storey Pinnacle@Duxton.  The background picture shows Mr Lee laying the bricks for the first two HDB flats in the Cantonment Road area in 1963.  Next to him are Tanjong Pagar GRC MPs Koo Tsai Kee and Indranee Rajah.

HDB to invite tenders for Pinnacle@Duxton construction
[Source:  TODAY, 15 September 2004]

The HDB will proceed with the tender and construction of The Pinnacle@Duxton as 79 per cent of the units in the project have been snapped up.

The booking exercise began on Aug 14 and by Sept 13, 1,456 units had been taken up.

The board said it expects the take-up rate to increase.

Almost 5,000 applications were received for the project, which will be reader under the HDB’s Build-To-Order System.

The Pinnacle@Duxton is HDB’s first 50-storey block project, comprising seven blocks in total.

Initially, only some 500 units under Phase 1 were put on offer in May, but these were six times over-subscribed.

The overwhelming response led the board to open all the units for immediate bookinge

Pinnacle@Duxton a ‘specal, one-off project’
[TODAY, 14 June 2004]

The Housing Development Board’s Pinnacle@Duxton development is a one-off project, National Development Miniaster Mah Bow Tan said on 13 June 2004.

He said: “HDB will not be doing a similar project anywhere else because the Duxton Plain area is a very special area, so we wanted to make it a very special project.

“Because of the special design with the special location, we expected the response to be good but frankly it was quite overwhelming.”

In future, the HDB will concentrate on providing for the basic housing needs of Singaporeans instead.

The Pinnacle@Duxton flats will have over 1,800 three-bedroom apartments in sever 50-storey blocks, which will be the tallest HDB blocks in Singapore.



View from the Pinnacle

[Source:  The Straits Times, 3 September 2008]

Singapore will be home to possibly the world’s largest sky garden – 500m long and 24m wide and perched up to 50 storeys above ground.

The garden, spread along a network of skybridges (above) will be on the doorsteps of HDB residents, so to speak, as part of it will sit ateop the tallest-ever public housing project here, with another section further down.

The Pinnacle@Duxton is located where first two HDB blocks in the area were built 50 years ago – an important tribute to the HDB’s 50th anniversary in 2009.



Going up together

By Leong Wee Keat
[Source:  TODAY, 14 December 2009]

The standards of flats – and correspondingly, their prices – are like a barometer of the economy.  If Singapore continues to prosper, the value of flats would appreciate, along with Signaporeans’ tangible stake in the country.

Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew made the point on 13 December 2009 at the key handover ceremony of The Pinnacle@Duxton.  And given the space constraints the island-state faces, he expects more such high-rise developments to be in the pipeline.

“We can’t expand the city laterally, we have to expand the city vertically,” he said.  “Yes, we can have more reclamations but that’s only about 10,15 per cent and we’ve reached the limit.

But Singaporeans, especially young couples, are concerned about prices going up as well.  On such sentiments, Mr Lee emphasised that flat prices move in tandem with Singapore’s economic growth.

“They’ve got to decide whether the country is going to go up or down, people’s incomes will be down, unemployment will be up, the property values will go down.”

If the people have confidence in the Republic and the Government, flat prices and values will rise “as it has been going up every year” historically, said Mr Lee, who as Prime Minister had in 1964 pushed to HDB to launch the home ownership scheme.

Noting that home ownership “motivates Singaporeans to work hard and upgrade to better flats for a beter quality of living,” Mr Lee said:  “More important, Singaporeans know that the HDB flat gives them a tangible stake in worth.  If Singapore prospers … they share in the growth … The HDB story reflects the social mobility in Singapore.

Pointing out that owning of a HDB flat was “a store of value that can be monetised when needs be”, he said home ownership had been critical for a fledgling nation with “an immigrant community with no common history”.

“If all of the 900,000 HDB flats built over the past 50 years were rental flats, Singapore would be a very different society today.  We would not have the stability, progress and prosperity that the stake in home ownership of a growing asset that has made possible,” said the Minister Mentor, reiterating the assurance that young couples would get sufficient help from the Government to own their first flat.

The Pinnacle@Duxton sits on the site where the HDB built the first rental blocks in the area in 1963.

Today, it houses the HDB’s latest generation of public housing, and the 50-storey project in Cantonment Road scores a number of first – including being the highest public housing block and one of the priciest.

But what takes it to a whole new level for residents is an unusual 800m jogging track on the 26th floor, which runs along six steel skybridges linking the seven blocks.  The top storey also has another six steel skybridges linking the seven blocks.  The top storey also has another six bridges where residents and non-residents can enjoy skyline views.

But the flats do not come cheap.  Prices, which started at $289,200 for the four-room flats in 2004, have climbed to around $533,000 this year, while those of five-room flats have risen from $439,400 to $643,000 over the five-year period.

Even so, demand for the flats was still very strong, Mr Lee noted, “The Pinnacle@Duxton is therefore a good example that if the nation continues to do well, we will build more flats of this standard.”


They’re coming home to Duxton

By Leong Wee Keat
[Source:  TODAY, 14 December 2009]

Getting the keys to their new The Pinnacle@Duxton flat yesterday was a moment to savour for Mr Venketroyalu Deenathayalu and his wife, Mdm Venkatesan Hema.

Not only is the 24th-floor unit their first home purchase, the couple are also returning to the site where they began life as husband and wife.

After getting married in 2002,  they stayed with Mr Venketroyalu’s father in a rental flat at the old Duxton Plain housing estate for eight months.

“I had a wonderful time here,” said Mr Venketroyalu, who had moved in with his father in 1997.  “We had such a close-knit community back then.”

Often, he would chat with neighbours and shop owners in the estate.  “We could buy things without paying first”, including furniture, recalled Mr Venketroyalu, 38, an IT project manager.

Such was their attachment to the neighbourhood that when it was time to move and make way for the new Pinnacle@Duxton project, the couple were among the last to leave their block.

Even though they moved to Jalan Bukit Merah, the couple had their sights on moving back in 2004, they booked a new four-room flat at The Pinnacle@Duxton for $330,000 and picked a unit on the same site as their previous one “for sentimental reasons”.  Their new flat even faces the same direction – towards Everton Park – as the rental flat that Mr Venketroyalu’s father used to stay in.

The couple had been eagerly anticipating the completion of the project.  “Every time I passed by, I kept counting the number of floors they had completed,” said Mdm Venkateasan, a housewife.

Now that the wait is over, the couple intend to start renovation work immediately and move in by the middle of next month.  Special prayers for the flat and housewarming partiesw have also been lined up.

“A lot of my friends are eagerly waiting to see the flat.  Even if I don’t invite them,” they say will come,” Mr Venketroyalu said in jest.



Two families returning to Duxton

By Zakir Hussain
[Source:  The Straits Times, 14 December 2009]

One of the first homes of Mr Venketroyalu Deenathayalu’s parents was a two-room flat they rented in Duxton Plain in 1968.

He was to follow in their footsteps about 35 years later when he rented a flat in the same area after his marriage.

Today, the 38-year-old project manager is the proud owner of a four-room HDB flat in the same neighbourhood, living in Singapore’s tallest and most distinctive public housing project: the Pinnacle@Duxton.

He was among seven first-time home-owners who received the keys to their flats from Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew, their MP, yesterday.

However, the HDB said Mr Venketroyalu’s family and another – the Tay siblings – are believed to be the only Pinnacle@Duxton flat owners to have previously lived in the two rental blocks that once occupied the same plot.

The project is the pride and joy of the Housing Board, which holds it up as a model of how the HDB has strived to improve the quality and design of its homes since it was set up 49 years ago.

The old rental blocks, launched in 1963, had 334 flats but the Pinnacle has 1.848 four and five-room flats, built for an affluent, home-owning population.

Within minutes of taking the first peek at his new home on the 24th floor, Mr Venketroyalu and his family were welcoming MM Lee into their flat.

Mr Venketroyalu’s 63-year-old mother, Mrs Susilabai Deenathayalu, said:  “It’s an honour to see my old MP after 40 years.”

She and her husband’s rental home in Duxton was a two-room flat on the eighth floor, with a view of the city.

When her son married in 2002, he and his wife, housewife Venkatesan Hema, now 33, stayed at the flat.

But they all had to leave the following year, as the area was earmarked for redevelopment.

Yesterday, as Mr Venketroyalu’s six-year-old daughter, Tejaswini, excitedly checked out each room, he saidL: “Many of our friends and relatives have already asked when they can come and have a look.”

Equally thrilled are the Tays, on the 18th storey of a nearby block.

Freelance tutor TayPoh Choo, 35, and her brother, engineer Tay Peck Seng, 41, lived in Duxton for 20 years, with their parents and three siblings, after moving from Jalan Membina in 1984.

Over the years, their three siblings married and moved out and their parents died, while the pair were relocated before the flats were demolished.

Ms Tay cited the Pinnacle’s central location, its proximity to Chinatown, an array of 24-hour food outlets and a host of childhood memories as factors that pulled her back to the neighbourhood.

The Pinnacle’s seven blocks are linked by skybridges on the 26th and 50th floors.  There is an 800m jogging track on the 26th floor and a huge sky garden on the roof, with views of the harbour and much of Singapore.

Only residents can use the track, but the top floor will be open to the public, for a $5 fee.  Only 200 can go up each day.

Madam Venkatesan, who used to be captivated by the city view from her old flat, noted wistfully that her new home faces the other direction.

“But there’s always the view from the corridor,” she added.

And, of course, the skybridges.

Duxton Plain and Cantonment Road in the Past




img030Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew with Housing & Development Board (HDB) Chairman Lim Kim San viewing scale model of upcoming housing estate at Cantonment Road on 15/3/1963.


Life After Death in Singapore’s Rivers


On 8 October, 1987, Judith Mayer, an Institute Fellow studying environmental protection , conservation, and sustainable development issues in Southeast Asia, wrote to Mr Peter Bird Martin, Executive Director, Institute of Current Word Affairs:

Dear Peter,

Strolling along the lower Singapore River last month, I hardly recognised the waterfront of my first visit there, ten years ago.  I remember describing that part of the river, running through Singapore’s old business district, as the most fascinating cesspool up its rivers and revive aquatic life in the dead waters.  The pace, scope, and intensity of this campaign is perhaps unmatched by those of water quality improvement efforts anywhere in the world.

On that introduction to Singapore, I remember wandering past the new skyscrapers of the multinational banks, angered by their contrast with the squalor below.  But the life along Singapore’s waterfronts interested me more than the sterility of the newer areas – -glossy in the corporate and hotel centers, drab in the more pervasive housing developments.  I followed the courses of Singapore’s major south – draining streams through trading, industrial, and finally incongruously rural areas until the streams became mere drainage ditches, lined in concrete.  I picked my way, gingerly, through bustling open-air food wholesaling districts, where vegetable garbage and packing materials were washed directly into storm drains.  I passed through boat yards where carpenters repaired sampans, tongkangs, twa-kows, and other Chinese-style vessels I never learned to identify.

Every few hours on these walks, I stopped at hawkers’ stalls near the river to try some new delicacy – – an endless variety of noodles or globby, luridly-colored bean-and-gelatin drinks.  I marvelled at the low overhead of these businesses, as cooks poured peels, grease, and washwater into the gutters or threw them onto the riverside mud.  Further upriver, the hammering and woodchips of cabinet-makers’ and coffin-makers’ yards gave way to the grunts, quacks, and putrid run-off of backyard pig and duck farms, curious anachronisms adjacent to the booming construction sites of Singapore’s now ubiquitous highrise apartment blocks.

It occurred to me that these riversides were none too healthy, and that the stinky waters themselves were devoid of any desirable aquatic life, as I carefully washed muck off my rubber thongs and feet each evening, even sacrificing a toothbrush to pursue the grease and grit that had seeped into callouses and under toenails.

In 1977, Singaporeans were self-consciously on the brink of middle-class nationhood.  Waterborne diseases were still more common  than the otherwise high levels of public health would lead one to believe.  Jet-setters rode glittering capsule elevators to the tops of corporate towers to see the panorama of boat life, squatter settlements flotsam and jetsam on the water and riverbanks.  The panorame allowed Singaporeans to romanticise the old town’s historical image, and transcend the conspicuous filth and untidiness of the rivers that flew in the face of high-tech lifestyle to which many Singaporeans had begun to aspire.

In early 1977, Singapore’s Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew, challenged the government to clean up the nation’s rivers:  ” . . . In ten years, let us have fishing in the Singapore River and fishing in the Kallang River.  It can be done.”  In Singapore, what Lee says, the government does.  By the end of the year, the Ministry of the Environment had traced the most obvious pollution to its sources in the two river basins.  The Singapore and Kallang River basins together are roughly contiguous to the most highly urbanized areas of the island state.  Reports spelled out measures to clean up the waters and riverbanks, on various aspects of the clean-up.

Over the next year, the Ministry of the Environment prepared a master action plan for completing the project.  Some people joked that the plan’s ten-year target was Singapore’s race to the moon.

Noting that I was looking at similar issues in other Southeast Asian nations did even more.  Singaporeans are intensely proud, even chauvanistic, of their success in such fields compared with their neighbors.

Even if bureaucrats responsible for specific segments of a project can’t point to anything tangible in the way of progress – – yet – – they solemnly point to their Plans.  In Singapore, a plan is a Plan.  As a unitary state (i.e. one without built-in divisions and conflict in authority and jurisdictions) the government cvan speak with one voice.  The Ministry of the Environment, as the lead agency in the clean-up effort ordered by Mr Lee, did not need to concern itself unduly with conflicts in interest and jurisdiction between local, state, and federal agencies, for example.  Questions of equitably distributing the costs and displacement associated with the river clean-ups were not subject to the public debate, accusations, and eventual fine-tuning that Amercans call “the democratic process.”  But Singapore’s press had covered the clean-up in details, and had subjected the versions of the plans released for public consumption to general speculation and questions.

I learned that, according to the Ministry of the Environment, cleaning up the rivers had requird resettling 26,000 families.  Occupantsof five major squatter settlements were moved by the Housing and Development Board to government flats or compensated to vacate their unsewered reverine sites according to government scales of patyments.  2,800 small industries, such as charcoal dealing, engine repairing, metal working, and carpenters were moved to government industrial estates or “flatted factories” (multi-storey or strip-type structures and yards leased to businesses and provided with water, sewer, electric, and security services).  800 small boat operators on the Singapore River were moved to Port Authority mooring places.  Most of the 64 boat yards of 1977 went out of business, largely due to the general downturn in Singapore’s small shipping trade with the dominance of large container ships and the demise of the river-oriented economic activities associated with the river clean-up and riverside land clearing.

In fact, much of the “clean-up” consisted of removing exactly those activities responsible for the economic vitality of Singapore’s rivers since the 1820s, when the island was Stamford Raffles’ Strait Settlement.  It is difficult and not particularly meaningful to distinguish between actions the government would probably have taken in the name of slum clearance or urban redevelopment from those taken only in the interest if improved health, water quality, or riverside aesthetics.  While cleaning the river itself was not originally envisoned as an essential element of Singapore’s comprehensive national development plans, most aspects of the clean-up had already been incoporated in these plans before the clean-up was emphasized as a separate goal.  Those riverside activities not removed from the area have been closely regulated with clear and simple rules on what is allowed on the river and what is now prohibited.

Because the Prime Minister had personally backed the river effort, appropriating money for it was not much of a problem.  Many of the elements of the clean-up were already accounted for or easily added to the responsible agencies’ operating and capital budgets.  More important, perhaps, Singapore’s government has little trouble gaining control of any piece of land it needs in the interest of national development.  Land to be cleared as part of the river clean-up was often moved to the top of priority lists for acquisition.  Because Singapore’s massive program of public housing and slum or squatter clearance was all set up to deal with those dislocated from the riversides, few particularly unique logistics needed to be worked out.  Whether or not the people moved are happy with the radically different housing and working alternatives provided is another matter.  But they have clearly moved from the “old Singapore to the new.

With the courtesy of the National Archives of Singapore related archived photos, the scenes of Singapore River by Judith Mayer are shared here on this blog.


qrfqrfqrfqrfThis photo in November 1969 by George W. Porter, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.  Cargo handling was often sheer muscle power as most cargoes were carrier by coolies from bumboats to godowns onto lorries parked along the river bank.

The work of the coolies working on the boats at Singapore River are described
here .



Taking a slow boat down the Singapore River


On 1 October, 1987, a couple of Australian tourists from Perth were the only passengers when River Attractions Pte Ltd ran the first of its bumboat cruises on the Singapore River.

For Mrs Joy Cooper, 71, and her daughter, Mrs Val Bell, 49, the lack of company was more than compensated for by the change they noted in the new “clean look” river.

The two had seen the river in its worst days.

“We remember when the river still had these bumboats along its banks, and it was crowded and dirty,” said Mrs Cooper.

The 90-minute cruise, which begins at Clifford Pier, takes tourists up the Singapore River to Liang Court before turning back.  Stopover can be made at Liang Court and the Raffles Landing Site.

The two women were impressed with their guide, Miss Catherine Chiang, 21, who talked about the activities along the river during the colonial days, the bridges under which the boat passed and the skyscrapers on the waterfront.

UN to tap Clean Rivers expertise

[Source:  The Straits Times, 9 December 1987]

The United Nations plans to get experts from Singapore to help Third World countries clean up their rivers and water resources.

The world body has been impressed with the success of the Republic’s Clean Rivers project – a 10-year campaign which ended recently.


Dr R.D. Deshpande, a UN environmental affairs adviser who has been involved in the Clean River project since 1983, held out Singapore’s success in cleaning up polluted rivers as a shining example for other developing countries to follow.

“If Singapore can do it, so can other countries,” said Dr Deshpande, who is with the UN Environment  Programme’s regional office based in Bangkok.

“The idea is for Singapore to share this experience and know-how with other developing countries.  It will benefit all the developing countries, including China.”

He recalls the state of the rivers four years ago:  “They were such a filthy sight, you wouldn’t believe the smell in those days.  They were a stigma on Singapore then, but now they are so beautiful.



The UNEP helps developing countries look after their environmental problems and provided Singapore with expertise and money in its river-cleaning project.

“We see Singapore as a case study on how to avoid the pitfalls of development,” said Dr Deshpande, citing the Republic’s strict control of pollution and waste discharge as examples of how such pitfalls were avoided.

In the course of cleaning its rivers, Singapore has developed a lot of expertise in the field which, he feels, can be shared with other countries.

He added that as a small island nation, we need to place more emphasis on the recycling of waster water.

This is done in many countries, even in the United States, which enjoys abundant water supplies.”

KL can learn from Singapore’s river clean-up

By Ziauddin Sharuddin
[Source: The Straits Times, 3 March 2007]

Malaysia will need 30 years to rehabilitate its polluted rivers and restore them to their original condition.

Some people were jolted by this statement from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage’s director-general, Datok Rosnani Ibrahim, as the targeted period was said to be long to see changes to the river conditions in Malaysia.

What is the follow-up action for river-cleaning efforts and can the period be shortened?  Malaysia can learn from Singapore’s success, the latter having till the 1970s wrestled with the same problem.

At that time, the Singapore River was badly polluted.

On Feb 27, 1977, then prime minister Lee Kuan Yew said in a speech at the opening of Upper Peirce Reservoir that Singaporeans should help keep the rivers clean.

“The Ministry of Environment must set a target.  In 10 years, we should be able to fish in the Singapore River and Kallang Basin was unveiled.

The project was carried out by pooling the expertise of various government agencies such as the Housing and Development Board, Urban Redvelopment Authority, Jurong Town Council and Primary Production Department.

The Ministry of Environment was responsible for monitoring the entire project.

However, how was the cleaning carried out?

A drastic measure was to relocate the sources of pollution along the rivers.  These included industries which disposed of waste into the rivers.  The agencies also relocated settlements along the rivers, while providing those affected with housing.  Hawkers were relocated to food courts complete with amenities.

One important decision took place in 1983 when barges, which used to play a major role in the trade and life of the Singapore River, were relocated to Pasir Panjang to allow aggressive cleaning of the river.  This allowed the river to be re-dug and refuse and mud-thrown away.

In September 1987, the environment ministry celebrated its hard work by organising as mass swimming event at the river.

Lee Kuan Yew What have I given up My Life

Today, the Singapore River has become a national landmark – but the project would not have become a reality if not for political will.

Dr Zaini Ujang, professor of environmental resources engineering and dean of the faculty of chemical engineering and natural resources at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, said Singapore implemented many new things for its river-cleaning programme such that the water resources management model is referred to internationally.

The Public Utilities Board has enormous power in water resources management, whereas that function in Malaysia is held by various agencies and state governments.

Dr Zaini said Malaysia could use Singapore’s approach to speed up the river-cleaning efforts could be implemented faster, that is, in just five years.

He is confident that efforts would be successful, provided there is political will, Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi had also expressed regret at the quality of river water here.

However, he said the government needs everyone’s help, particularly help from the private sector, non-government organisations and professional groups.

The commentary translated from Malay appeared in Malaysia’s Berita Minggu.

Do you remember about the building of the so-called “crocked bridge” first mooted by Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad in 2003?

Just before ending his 22-year tenure as PM, Tun Dr Mahathir announced that Malaysia would go ahead and build a crooked bridge – a six-lane S-shaped highway that would curve in such a way that it allows vessels to pass under it – if Singapore refused to demolish its half of the Causeway.

The Prime Minister of Malaysia has different dreams and different thoughts compared to the dreams and their thinking aloud of Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew.

Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew said that “This is not a game of cards” at YouTube video here .

The decision of Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and founding fathers of the government in Singapore would affect the lives of Singaporeans, not by mere words in speeches in public.

As a case in point, it is interesting to know that PM Lee Kuan Yew did not agree with Dr Albert Winsemius that the the Singapore River is too polluted and impossible to clean up.

In his speech by Mr Masagos Zulkifli, Minister for the Environment and Water Reources at the opening of the Sustainable Singapore Gallery on 2 June 2018.

” … inside the Gallery, you will see a little porcelain figurine of a man, his grandson, and their dog out on a fishing trip.  The figurine was presented to Dutch economist Dr Albert Winsemius after he lost a wager that the Singapore River could once again sustain life.  Dr Winsemius was Chief Economic Advisor to the Singapore Government, and knew Prime Minister Mr Lee Kuan Yew well.  They agreed on many things and we implemented most of Dr Winsemius’ recommendations.  But when Dr Winsemius recommended covering up the polluted Singapore River to turn it into a sewer, Mr Lee Kuan Yew objected and instead promised Dr Winsemius that he would one day catch a fish in the Singapore River.  During his final visit to Singapore in 1993, he did catch a “Garoupa”  (Grouper), and said he was never happier to lose a wager.

The clean-up of the Singapore River took us a decade and cost $300 million.  The successful completion showed that despite the difficulties showed Singapore’s determination to grow our economy whilst protecting our environment.  Sustainable development is and has been the cornerstone of our policy making since our independence.

What kind of a Singapore would be like without the Singapore River ….. if Dr Winsemius’ recommendation were to be implemented.  The island of Singapore with the Singapore River when it was God-made and left alone to improve its environment man can do, not change it into a sewer.   God bless Singapore!



In 1977, work has begun to clean up the Singapore River and the hope is that it will become a clean and blue waterway teeming with fish.  The first target of the Port of Singapore Authority clean-up crew is the rotting lighters in the river.  The abandoned lighters, including sunken ones have been lying there for so many years – with no one doing anything to clear them  Many will be glad to see the wrecks removed to beautify the river.  [Source:  National Archives of Singapore].

Memories of School Tuckshops in the Past


With courtesy of Blueninja Ng of “The Good Old Days Singapore” group on Facebook, I am pleased to be inspired by his recent post and share the memories of school tuckshops in the past.

I have previously posted a related blog here .   Pls take a look at these old nostalgic photos of the school tuckshops in Singapore in the past.


Tuck into healthier fare

Tuckshop programme on, but students must play part, too

By Reeta Raman
[TODAY, 2 August 2005]

Call it the silent “diet”, but without much fanfare, many schools in Singapore have already taken steps to produce healthier menu for their students.

Most children eat at least one meal a day from school tuckshops on most days of the week.

And because eating habits that are cultivated early in life have an influence later in life, the nutritive value of foods served in tuckshops play an important role in determining the child’s health and well-being, said Ms Seah Peik Ching, a nutritionist with the nutrition programme at the Health Promotion Board (HPB).

It is for thiese reasons and more that approximately 80 per cent of schools in Singapore have voluntarily participated in the Model School Tuckshop Programme since it was launched in 2003.

Singapore schools are not alone in their desire to whip their tuckshop menus into better shape.

Over the past year in the United States, efforts to shape up school nutrition standards intensified as concerns mounted over the increasing number of school-age obese children.

States such as Texas, Washington and Chicago are reducing snack portions by setting ceilings for calories.

Efforts to promote healthy eating in school tuckshops in Singapore started in 1992, with the introduction of the Trim and Fit (TAF) programme.

The tuckshop programme was recently introduced to provide an incentive for schools to make healthier food choices available in tuckshops.

It encourages tuckshop vendors to meet seven guidelines, such as restricting the sale of deep-fried food and preserved meat once a week, and using skinless poultry and lean meat.


  • Eat the first meal of the day with your children to encourage the habit of having breakfast
  • Plan and supervise two meals (for example, breakfast and dinner) at home daily.
  • Set a good example by getting to know food facts and values and encourage your child to eat healthy and to exercise regularly.

Pupils get a taste of healthy eating

[Source:  The Straits Times, 8 November 2002]

Ask Tun Mun Chun, 12, whether he prefers fruits and vegetables or burgers, and he barely hesitates over his reply.

“I’d choose fruits and vegetables.  They’re very tasty and healthier than burgers,” said the Primary 6 pupil from Townsville Primary School. “Burgers are very oily.”

He and other students watched a skit on 7 November, 2002 about the benefits of eating fruits and vegetables.”

They also received an apple each as part of a Health Promotion Board scheme to distribute apples to pupils of 165 primary schools.

More than 70,000 apples were given out over two days.

The board’s message to the pupils to eat two servings each of fruits and vegetables every day.

Ms Janet Loo, the board’s executive in charge of the Fruits and Vegetables Day programme, said: “You give them the apples and they will eat them immediately.

“That’s the call for action we’re looking for.”

A 1999 study of more than 700 Chinese Singaporeans found that those who develop the habit of eating fruits and vegetables from a young age are three times more likely to eat, or attempt to eat, the recommended amount of these foods when they are adults.


Shot in the arm
Typhoid jabs for all tuckshop vendors

[Source:  New Nation, 26 January 1976]


Ouch! Madam Wee Hiang Lye, who sells sweets at the Singapore Vocational Institute, grimaces as she is inoculated against typhoid by Staff Nurse Puah Swee Kim.

Madam Wee and 12 other tuckshop vendors at the institute lined up for the injections by a team from the Ministry of Environment.

This is part of the Ministry’s mass campaign to immunise all tuckshop vendors against typhoid to safeguard the health of Singapore’s 500,000 school children.

All 2476 stallholders working in school canteens will be inoculated against typhoid by the end of April, 1976,

Although the jab gives protection against the outbreak of the disease, the hawkers must still practise proper personal hygience when preparing food.

Roving days of street hawkers over by 1990


img0096Registered hawkers balloting for hawker stalls at Bukit Ho Swee, 1966.  A new Hawkers Code was implemented in 1966 for licensing and controlling hawkers.  Since then, street hawkers were progressively relocated into markets and shophouses with running water, electricity and proper refuse disposal facilities.  They also had to comply with minimum public health requirements and empty all refuse at proper public refuse bins.  Food and drink hawkers were tested for communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and cholera.

Roving days of street hawkers over by 1990

By Corinne Tham

[Source:  The Straits Times, 10 December 1978]

The wandering days of all street hawkers in Singapore will be over by 1990.

That is the official deadline set by the Ministry of the Environment, a ministry spokesman said on 9 December 1978.

“The current policy is to house all street hawkers because of public health reasons,” he said.

Street hawkers provide a major source of water pollution, do not have proper facilities to prepare hygienic food and obstruct roads.


The government has up to now resettled about 20,000 street hawkers by channelling them into food centres and markets located mainly at housing estates.

“There are still 6,986 hawkers in the streets,” said the spokesman.

“We expect to resite some 4,600 street hawkers by 1981 – 4,200 will be absorbed by the Housing and Development Board and 400 into three food centres to be built by the ministry, he added.

Two of the three proposed centres will be located in the Central Business District.  Plans to have them constructed by 1981 have already been submitted to the Finance Ministry and the Master Planning Committee for approval.

The proposed sites will be in the areas within High Street, Telok Ayer and Farrer Park.

There are now about 4,108 street hawkers distributed over 200 sites in the Central Business District.

These hawkers are patronised mainly by office workers.  The Public Health Inspectorate checks hawker sites to ensure that only hygienic food is sold to the public.

In order to settle all remaining hawker centres by 1990, more hawker centres with an average of 150 stalls will have to be constructed, said the spokesman.

“As an interim measure until such time suitable sites are found and more food centres constructed, exisiting hawker sites are being improved and provided with anti-pollution facilities,” he added.

Some of the areas where such programmes have already been implemented are Eu Tong Sen Street, St. Gregory Place and the backlanes of Robinson Road.


All food centres are subsidised by the government.  It costs an average of $15,000 to build a food stall excluding the cost of land.

No more street hawker licences will be issued in line with the current policy to relocate street hawkers.

The present policy is to discourage the young and abled to take up hawking although consideration will be given to hardship cases, the spokesman said.

Archived photos of street hawkers in Singapore [Courtesy of National Archives of Singapore].


img0084img0009Singapore street scene showing patrons at roadside hawker stall, 1956


img0061Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew stopping at a street hawker stall during his tour of Paya Lebar constituency on 24/03/1963.

img0102Outside Goodwood Park Hotel, 1930

img0082img0080img070img0070A street hawker selling bananas to a soldier, 1945.


Photos courtesy of Carl Mydans


The heritage photos of street stalls in Singapore are shared on Facebook by Carl Mydans here .


My blogger friend, Andy Young’s blog ‘Singapore 60s Music’ is available here .

Hawker food of yesteryear

In this series, Natalie Wong finds out more about the lives of hawkers in early Singapore

[Source: The Straits Times, 14 October 2014]

The five-foot way along shophouses of 1950s Singapore became a natural place for hawkers to open small businesses, to attract the masses of passers-by.

The five-foot-way shelters were ordered by Sir Stamford Raffles to be built in the 1800s.

He ordered shophouses to have a covered walkway of about five feet wide (1.5m) along their street fronts.

This was picked by hawkers as a suitable place to run their businesses, because of the shelter it provided.

Hawkers manned pushcarts and it was common practice for them to hawk their wares by shouting aloud to attract customers.

Without needing a licence to operate and to pay for rental space, these hawkers lined the streets of Chinatown in droves.  Their mobile carts or bicycles allowed them to travel about to sell anything from laksa to satay and wanton noodles.

They also made and sold other popular food and tidbits like ding ding tang (a malt candy), muah chee (a sticky glutinous rice snack covered with crushed peanuts) and grilled sweet corn, among a myriad of other dishes.

However, with hygience concerns and economic progress, the Singapore Government constructed hawker centres to house travelling hawkers in permanent stalls.

In 1993, the Government passed a law that banned hawkers from operating mobile pushcarts along the streets unless they had a licence.

The newly renovated Chinatown Food Street in Smith Street, with 24 street hawker stalls, tries to recreate these days of yore by ling the street with stalls constructed to look like pushcarts of the past.



River Hongbao & Chingay 2020


River Hongbao 2020 is organised by the Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Association (SFCCA), Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Singapore Press Holdings (SPH), the Singapore Tourism Board (STB) and People’s Association.

Since its inception in 1987, the event has evolved to become a major highlight of the Singapore calendar, attracting one million participants every year.  About 30 per cent to 35 per cent of whom are made up of tourists keen to experience Singapore’s unique Chinese New Year flavour, with most of them coming from China, Malaysia and Britain, said the STB.

There is no better way to celebrate the Lunar New Year than to be part of the largest, most anticipated Lunar New Year event of the year.  River Hongbao 2020  features special choreographed fireworks, interactive exhibits and intricate handmade lanterns that truly brings the festivity to life!

It was held at The Float @ Marina Bay from 23 January to 1 February, 2020.   Find out more at the River Hongbao   website .

My personal memories of River Hongbao are shared on my blogs here .

Walking down my fond nostalgic memories once a year again on 31 January, 2020, I arrived at my favorite places in Singapore on a blessed hot sunny morning.



thumbnail_IMG_20200201_075714The young friend from Taiwan helped to take me a photo.




The colorful and decorative lanterns at River Hongbao 2020

thumbnail_IMG_20200201_011252_editYear of the Rat 2020, my Chinese zodiac animal.   I was born in the Year of the Rat 1948.

The 12 Chinese Zodiac Animals













The God of Wealth at River Hongbao 2020

thumbnail_IMG_20200201_011632The God of Wealth at River Hongbao 2020 carries an abacus for you to count your money …  uncountable as more and more money flow in to you.   Huat Ah!

The stage performances of the Peranakan dance and Chinese dance video clips on YouTube.

This piece of melodious Chinese music [Spring on Yi River 春到沂河] brings back the joy of spring at the river here .

With thanks to Sean for the YouTube video of the opening ceremony of River Hongbao 2020 here .


thumbnail_IMG_20200201_011757The ‘Wishing Tree’ at River Hongbao 2020





Chingay Parade Singapore 2020

As night falls and the sky grew dark over the Singapore waterfront …..


Chingay is one of Asia’s largest street and floats parade that epitomises the dynamism of Singapore’s vibrant and multicultural society.  To mark 60 years of community building by the People’s Association in 2020, the theme for Chingay 2020 is ‘Colours in Harmony’, expressed through the use of different colours to symbolise Singapore’s cultural diversity and harmonious blend of different cultures in this 48th edition.

An estimated 6,000 volunteer performers from all walks of life and different organisations were involved in co-presenting this People’s Parade to showcase their passion and skills in a vivid display of their talents, over five parade segments.

As a national platform that brings people from diverse backgrounds together to celebrate Singapore’s unique culturalism, Chingay was the first event mark this milestone.

Over the years, Chingay is always associated with diversity, due to the multi-cultural performances that are put up.  Most times, these ethnic groups will present their individual items.  But for the first time, in Chingay 2020, the creative team has challenged themselves to choreograph a unique fusion item titled ‘Harmony in Motion’ where performers of four different races will perform together as one.  There will be common elements in their costumes, music and choreography, but yet, each ethnic identity will remain distinct.  This is an example of how Singapore is – we celebrate diversity in harmony.

[Source: Chingay Parade ].


Wishing everyone a blessed, peaceful Happy Chinese New Year of the Rat 2020 for happiness, good health,  success and prosperity!